1878 Lombroso publishes L’uomo Delinquent (Delinquent Man)

Cesare Lombroso, regarded as the founder of criminology, on the mainland of Europe, published L’uomo Delinquent (Delinquent Man).

He believed that one third of criminals are distinguished from non-criminals by multiple physical anomalies. He suggested that criminals  represented a reversion to a primitive or subhuman type of man.

This theory was discredited (see 1913, Goring) but Lombroso was probably the first to introduce scientific measurements and arguments into the study of offenders.